Nelson Mandela Class 10 Extra Questions And answers Best Topper In The World

Nelson Mandela Class 10
Nelson Mandela Class 10

Nelson Mandela Class 10 BEFORE YOU READ

‘Apartheid’ is a political system that separates people according to their race. Can you say which of the three countries named below had such a political system until very recently? (i) United States of America (ii) South Africa (iii) Australia
• Have you heard of Nelson Mandela? Mandela, and his African National Congress, spent a lifetime fighting against apartheid. Mandela had to spend thirty years in prison.

Finally, democratic elections were held in South Africa in 1994, and Mandela became the first black President of a new nation. In this extract from his autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, Mandela speaks about a historic occasion, ‘the inauguration’. Can you guess what the occasion might be? Check your guess with this news item (from the BBC) of 10 May 1994.

The NCERT solutions are written in easy-to-understand English that will help students grasp ideas well and be able to do English tests with complete confidence. Access the solutions for this chapter in PDF from the link below to confirm the arrangements. Class 10 English Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela, students can get answers to all the questions which are available at the end of the chapter.

Mandela Becomes South Africa’s First Black President Nelson Mandela has become South Africa’s first Black President after more than three centuries of white rule. Mr Mandela’s African National Congress (ANC) party won 252 of the 400 seats in the first democratic elections of South Africa’s history.

The inauguration ceremony took place in the Union Buildings amphitheatre in Pretoria today, attended by politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries around the world. “Never, never again will this beautiful land experience the oppression of one by another, ” said Nelson Mandela in his address.

… Jubilant scenes on the streets of Pretoria followed the ceremony with blacks, whites and coloureds celebrating
together… More than 100,000 South African men, women and children of all races sang and danced with joy.

Activity
In Column A are some expressions you will find in the text. Make a guess and match each expression with an appropriate meaning from Column B.

Nelson Mandela Class 10

TENTH May dawned bright and clear. For the past few days, I had been pleasantly besieged by dignitaries and world leaders who were coming to pay their respects before the inauguration. The inauguration would be the largest gathering ever of international leaders on South African soil.

The ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria. For decades this had been the seat of white supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government. On that lovely autumn day, I was accompanied by my daughter Zenani. On the podium, Mr de Klerk was first sworn in as second deputy president. Then

Nelson Mandela Class 10
Nelson Mandela Class 10

Thabo Mbeki was sworn in as the first deputy president. When it was my turn, I pledged to obey and uphold the Constitution and to devote myself to the wellbeing of the Republic and its people. To the assembled guests and the watching world, I said: Today, all of us do, by our presence here… confer glory and hope to newborn liberty.

Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.

We, who were outlaws not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil. We thank all of our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.

We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination. Never, never, and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another. The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement. Let freedom reign. God bless Africa!

Nelson Mandela Class 10 Oral Comprehension Check

  1. Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any publicbuildings in India that are made of sandstone?
  2. Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
  3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary
  4. human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious …human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
  5. What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
  6. What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa?

Ans) 1)The ceremony was held in the courtyard of the Union Building in Pretoria, which was attended by dignitaries and leaders of many nations. India; Rashtrapati Bhavan and Red Fort are buildings made of red stone.

2) Since South Africa is in the southern hemisphere, it could fall in the fall. Thus May 10 is ‘autumn day’.

3) By Human Disaster Mandela Means to say that coloured People have suffered a lot due to discrimination at the hands of whites. He considered it as a great glorious human achievement that a black person became the president of a country where the blacks are not considered as human beings and are treated badly.

4) Mandela felt privileged to welcome international leaders under oath – at an event because not long ago, South Africans were considered criminals. In this way he thanks everyone for coming to see the historic event. This was an act of international recognition in the newly formed democratic nation and could be regarded as a common triumph of justice, peace and human dignity.

5) Mandela felt privileged to welcome international leaders under oath – at an event because not long ago, South Africans were considered criminals. In this way he thanks everyone for coming to see the historic event. This was an act of international recognition in the newly formed democratic nation and could be regarded as a common triumph of justice, peace and human dignity.

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A few moments later we all lifted our eyes in awe as a spectacular array of South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers roared in perfect formation over the Union Buildings. It was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected.

Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police, their chests bedecked with ribbons and medals from days gone by, saluted me and pledged their loyalty. I was not unmindful of the fact that not so many years before they would not have saluted but arrested me. Finally, a chevron of Impala jets left a smoke trail of the black, red, green, blue and gold of the new South African flag.

The day was symbolised for me by the playing of our two national anthems, and the vision of whites singing ‘Nkosi Sikelel –iAfrika’ and blacks singing ‘Die Stem’, the old anthem of the Republic. Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem they once despised, they would soon know the words by heart.

On the day of the inauguration, I was overwhelmed with a sense of history. In the first decade of the twentieth century, a few years after the bitter Anglo-Boer war and before my own birth, the white-skinned peoples of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the dark-skinned peoples of their own land.

The structure they created formed the basis of one of the harshest, most inhumane, societies the world has ever known. Now, in the last decade of the twentieth century, and my own eighth decade as a man, that system had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognised the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.

That day had come about through the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of my people, people whose suffering and courage can never be counted or repaid. I felt that day, as I have on so many other days, that I was simply the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before me.

That long and the noble line ended and now began again with me. I was pained that I was not able to thank them and that they were not able to see what their sacrifices had wrought. The policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in my country and my people. All of us will spend many years, if not generations, recovering from that profound hurt.

But the decades of oppression and brutality had another, unintended, effect, and that was that it produced the Oliver Tambos, the Walter Sisulus, the Chief Luthuli’s, the Yusuf Dads, the Bram Fischers, the Robert Sobukwes of our time* — men of such extraordinary

Nelson Mandela Class 10
Nelson Mandela Class 10

courage, wisdom and generosity that they like may never be known again. Perhaps it requires such depths of oppression to create such heights of character. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, but I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people, finer and truer than the purest diamonds.

It is from these comrades in the struggle that I learned the meaning of courage. Time and again, I have seen men and women risk and give their lives for an idea. I have seen men stand up to attacks and torture without breaking, showing a strength and resilience that defies the imagination.

I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.

No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.

Even in the grimmest times in prison, when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits, I would see a glimmer of humanity in one of the guards, perhaps just for a second, but it was enough to reassure me and keep me going. Man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished.

Nelson Mandela Class 10 Oral Comprehension Check

Q.1) What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?

Ans: South Africa’s top military generals greeted Mandela and promised their loyalty which was crucial as during apartheid they would arrest him. The change in their attitude was due to the struggle and sacrifices made by many South African heroes.

The struggle not only guaranteed the freedom of the war-torn nation, but it also brought about a change in the thinking of many. He believed that love could be taught and that man was naturally more inclined to love than hate.

Q.2) Why were two national anthems sung?

Ans: On The day of the inauguration two national anthems were sung. One by the whites, and the other by the blocks. This symbolized of equality of black and whites.

Q.3) How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country

(i) in the first decade, and

(ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?

Ans: (i) In the first decade of the century, whites formed a system of racial domination of blacks, thus forming the basis of one of the most ruthless and inhumane societies the world has ever known.

(ii) In the last decade of the 20th century, the. the previous system was abolished and replaced by a system that recognized the rights and freedoms of all people regardless of their skin colour.

Q.4) What does courage mean to Mandela?

Ans: For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.

Q.5) Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?

Ans: Mandela, love comes more naturally to the human heart than hate.

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In life, every man has twin obligations — obligations to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children; and he has an obligation to his people, his community, his country. In a civil and humane society, each man is able to fulfil those obligations according to his own inclinations and abilities. But in a country like South Africa, it was almost impossible for a man of my birth and colour to fulfil both of those obligations.

In South Africa, a man of colour who attempted to live as a human being was punished and isolated. In South Africa, a man who tried to fulfil his duty to his people was inevitably ripped from his family and his home and was forced to live a life apart, a twilight existence of secrecy and rebellion.

I did not, in the beginning, choose to place my people above my family, but in attempting to serve my people, I found that I was prevented from fulfilling my obligations as a son, a brother, a father and a husband.

I was not born with a hunger to be free. I was born free — free in every way that I could know. Free to run in the fields near my mother’s hut, free to swim in the clear stream that ran through my village, free to roast mealies under the stars and ride the broad backs of slow-moving bulls. As long as I obeyed my father and abided by the customs of my tribe, I was not troubled by the laws of man or God.

It was only when I began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an illusion when I discovered as a young man that my freedom had already been taken from me, that I began to hunger for it. At first, as a student, I wanted freedom only for myself, the transitory freedoms of being able to stay out at night, read what I pleased and go where I chose. Later, as a young man in Johannesburg,

I yearned for the basic and honourable freedoms of achieving my potential, of earning my keep, of marrying and having a family — the freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life.

But then I slowly saw that not only was I not free. but my brothers and sisters were not free. I saw that it was not just my freedom that was curtailed, but the freedom of everyone who looked like I did. That is when I joined the African National Congress and that is when the hunger for my own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom

Nelson Mandela Class 10
Nelson Mandela Class 10

of my people. It was this desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated my life, that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, that drove a law-abiding attorney to become a criminal, that turned a family-loving husband into a man without a home, that forced a life-loving man to live like a monk.

I am no more virtuous or self-sacrificing than the next man, but I found that I could not even enjoy the poor and limited freedoms I was allowed when I knew my people were not free. Freedom is indivisible; the chains on any one of my people were the chains on all of them, the chains on all of my people were the chains on me.

I knew that the oppressor must be liberated just as surely as the oppressed. A man who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred; he is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrowmindedness. I am not truly free if I am taking away someone else’s freedom, just as surely as I am not free when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.

Nelson Mandela Class 10 Oral Comprehension Check

Q.a) What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?

Ans: Mandela points out that every man has two responsibilities. The first is for his family, parents, wife and children; the second responsibility is his people, his community and his country.

Q.b) What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?

Ans: Like any other child, for Mandela freedom meant happiness and happy life. When a person is older, childhood adventures look short-lived because many childhood activities are a waste of an adult’s perspective. When you are older, you need to find a way to make a living at home. Only then do you get a dignified life in the family and community?

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Other Extra Questions And answers Best Topper In The World

Q. 1) Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?

Ans: To be part of the anointing, international leaders have shown solidarity from the international community to the idea of ​​ending apartheid. It was important to conquer good over evil and victory over a tolerant society without discrimination.

Q. 2) What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him?

Ans: By saying that he is simply the sum of all those African patriots, Mandela wants to pay his tribute to all the people who have sacrificed their lives for the sake of freedom. He says that he is grateful to those who had gone before him because those heroes of the past had paved the path of cooperation and unity for him. Therefore, he could try to come to power to bring equality for his people with their support

Q. 3) Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?

Ans: I agree with the statement that the depth of oppression creates a moral high ground. Nelson Mandela shows this by giving examples of great South African heroes such as Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu and others who were inspired to give their lives in the long struggle for freedom.
India is full of such examples, during our liberation struggle there was a galaxy of great character leaders and the oppression of the British empire created and inspired people of noble character like Mahatma Gandhi, Lala Lajpat Rai, JL Nehru, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Sardar Bhagat Singh and many others. If we compare them to the quality of political leaders India has today, then Nelson Mandela seems to be quite right;

Q. 4) How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?

Ans: Through age and experience, Mandela understood the true meaning of freedom. As a young boy, he believed that he was born free and that if he obeyed his father and followed the customs of his tribe, he would be free in every way.

As he grew older, the freedom to raise a family and the freedom to earn a living began to dominate his thinking. He gradually realized that he was selfish in his youth. He gradually came to realize that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. It was freedom from fear and prejudice. Age and knowledge heightened his view of freedom.

Q. 5) How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?

Ans: Mandela realized in his youth that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed. but the freedom of all blacks. The hunger for his own freedom became the hunger for the freedom of his people. This desire for a non-racial society transformed him into a virtuous and self-sacrificing man. thus, he joined the African National Congress and this changed him from a frightened young man into a bold man.

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Fire And Ice Class-10

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